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Introduction To Segmentation: The microprocessor has 20 bit address pins; these are capable of addressing 1MegaByte memory. Causes all segments to default to DWORD alignmentP enabled assembly of all instructions (see) enabled assembly of instructions . This directive tells the assembler the name of the logical segment it should use for a specified segment. For example ASSUME CS:CODE, tells.

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This shortens the source code. MODEL- This directive is used for selecting a standard memory model for the assembly language program. You get question papers, syllabus, subject analysis, answers – all in one app.

Each module is individually assembled, tested, and debugged. The ENDP directive is used to indicate the end of a procedure.

The Addressing Modes. The works directly with only 4 physical segments: This method of specifying jump address saves memory. This directive is used to define a variable which is 10 bytes in length or to reserve 10 bytes of storage in the memory. It processes the pseudo operands and directives. The DT directive directs the assembler to define the specified variable requiring bytes for its storage and initialize the bytes with the specified values.

For completing all these tasks, an assembler needs some When all the modules are working correctly, their object code files are linked together to form the complete program.

This directive is used to insert a block of source code from the named file into the current source module. Labels Automata Languages and Computation. Directives Also called as pseudo operations that control the assembly process. The program is stored in code segment area. The ORG directive directs the assembler to start the memory allotment for the particular segment, block or code from the declared address in the ORG statement.

Another type of hint which helps the assembler to assign a particular constant with a label or initialize particular memory locations or labels with constants is an operator.


The DW directive serves the same purposes as the DB directive, but it makes the assembler reserves the number of memory words 16bit instead of bytes. The SHORT operator indicates the assembler that only one byte is required to code the displacement for a jump. The assembler directives can be divided into two categories namely the general purpose directives and the special directives.


The NAME directive is used to assign a name to an assembly language program module. Group the Related Segments: Byte Length Of A Label: Normally the data is variable.

This directive indicates the assembler that directifes label following FAR PTR is not available within the same segment and the address of the bit is of 32 bits i.

DB — Define Byte This directive is used to declare a byte type variable or to store a byte in memory location. As the name says, it directs the assembler to do a task. A series of words can be read much more quickly if they are at even address.


Categories Automata Languages and Computation. The first phase of assembling is to analyze the program to be converted. EQU This directive is used to give a name to some value direcrives to a symbol. These types of hints are given to the assembler using some predefined alphabetical strings called assembler directives, which helps the assembler to correctly understand the assembly language program to prepare the codes. This directive instructs the assembler to increment the location of the counter to the next even address if it is not already in the even address.

It also finds out codes of the instructions from the instruction machine, code database and the program data. This directive is used to define a variable of type quadword or to reserve storage location of type quadword in memory.

Receive All Updates Via Facebook. They generate and store information in 80836 memory. The operating system that actually has directivew control of the memory, which is to be allotted to the program for execution, passes the memory address at which the program is to be loaded for execution and the map of the directivez memory to the loader. DD — Define Doubleword This directive is used to define a variable directuves type doubleword or to reserve storage location of type doubleword in memory.

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IR0 has the highest priority and IR7 has the lowest one.

Macro Assembler Directives

Assembler directives- Idrectives are the statements that direct the assembler to do something. DW — Define Word. Mohaimen Himu October 24, at Based on this information and the information generated by the assembler, the loader generates an executable map of the program and further physically loads it into the memory and transfers control to for execution. This multiplication process takes place in the adder and thus a 20 bit number is generated.

The PROC directive marks the start of a named procedure in the statement. Name or labels referred dierctives as external in one module must be declared public with the PUBLIC directive in the module in which they are defined. The PUBLIC directive is used to tell the assembler that a specified name or label will be accessed from other modules.

Generally, the program does not know the exact physical address of an instruction. Newer Post Older Post Home. The use of this directive is just to reduce the recurrence of the numerical values or constants in the program code. This directive is used to group the logical segments named after the directive into one logical group segment. This directive marks the end of a logical segment.

The assembler will ignore any statements after an END directive, so you should make sure to use only one END directive at the very end of your program module. This is because the END directive terminates the entire program.